The incorporation of trivalent rare earth ions into BaTiO3 has been studied as a function of the Ba/Ti ratio. There is a gradual shift in the site occupied as a function of the ionic radius of the rare earth. The larger ions predominantly occupy the Ba sites and give donor-doped behavior, while the smaller ions prefer the Ti sites and confer acceptor-doped behavior. The Ba/Ti ratio has a significant effect on the distribution of the dopant. Erbium is an intermediate case and predominantly occupies either the Ba site when there is an excess of TiO2, or the Ti site when there is an excess of BaO.
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